Important Organisations of the Indian National Movement

An Insight into the Important Organisations that were established during the Indian National Movement


By the 2nd half of 19th century, few regional leaders realised that due to lack of feeling of nationalism a handful of foreigners has been able to establish their political rule over the country. Therefore, they decided to create political awareness and national consciousness among large mass of Indian population.

It was also realised at the very same time that an organised and effective agitation on a long-term basis will make it to achieve. Therefore, several regional political organisations began to be established and an agitation was launched which came to be known as Indian national movement.

Indian association of Calcutta

  • It was 1st such organisation established in the province of Bengal in 1876.
  • Established by- Surendra Nath Banerjee & Anand Mohan Bose
  • With the efforts of this organisation political awareness national consciousness was generated among the people of Bengal at large scale.
  • This made Bengal emerged to be the most politically active province.

Madras Mahajan Sabha

  • It was established in the province of Madras in 1884.
  • Established by G Subramaniye Aier, M. Veraraghavachari, T Ananda Charlu
  • They played vital role in creating national consciousness among people throughout south Indian territory.

Bombay Presidency Association

  • Established in 1885 in the western part of India known as Bombay presidency association.
  • Established by Firoz Shah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji, KL Telang
  • Their efforts made the political awareness and national consciousness spread in large among the common masses of western India.

All India Body

  • By the end of year 1885, regional political leaders decide to establish an All India body.
  • This was made to coordinate the efforts of regional organisation.
  • This led to the establishment of Indian national congress (Dec 1885).
  • Idea of establishing INC was given by retired british civil servant A O Hume.
  • This contribution of british officer led to a controversy known as Safety Valve Theory, given by Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • Lala Lajpat rai was of the opinion that this party has been established by british authority in order to know public opinion.
  • After knowing the public opinion these british people were going to adopt corrective measures to prevent any major revolt. We can also say that INC was established to provide ventilation to grievances of Indian masses.

Read more: Important Revolutionary movement in India & their rise

  • They believed INC was estd as a result of culmination of political awareness starting from middle of 19th
  • Indian leaders took help of retired british civil servant in order to avoid any official suspicion regarding the intension of Indian masses.

Indian National Congress

  • 1st session of INC was convened at Bombay in 1885.
  • Attended by 72 delegates
  • Presided by WC Banerjee
  • Decision taken- INC is political body not concerned with socio religious affairs of Indian masses
  • With this session Indian national movement started in a small but organised fashion.
  • In initial phase of INM congress party was dominated by educated Indian classes having full faith in progressive character of british rule.
  • They demanded constitutional rights in the most peaceful manners through petitions and prayers.
  • Since these people adopted moderate methods of agitation, they collectively came to be known as
  • Under the pressure of these leaders british authority decided to give limited constitutional rights.
  • The most important contribution of moderates was in the form of economy critique of imperialism.
  • They have criticised discriminatory economic policies that has led to poverty and unemployment in India.
  • India’s 1st economic thinker Dada Bhai Naoraji gave the concept of drain of wealth whereby Indian resources were transferred unilaterally to Britain.
  • With these efforts of moderates, it led to large degree of awareness among Indian masses. As a result, congress leaders demanded swaraj in the beginning of 20th century
  • The word swaraj indicated rights of self-rule to be given to Indian leaders under the overall control of british authority.
  • Demand for swaraj was formally made at Calcutta session of INC 1906, presided by Dada Bhai Naoroji & Draft proposal for swaraj was prepared by Mohd. Ali Jinnah.
  • Most important weakness of moderate leaders was that they never showed faith in the capacity of masses who sacrificed.
  • They never decided to start any mass agitation.
  • Their movement remained confined among educated class of India.
  • In year 1905 INM entered its 2nd phase when it came under the influence of leaders who believed in mass agitation.

These leaders are collectively known as militant nationalists or extremist.

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