Here is a list of Important Viceroys and the changes they bought.
After the Revolt of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 came out. This act replaced the office of Governor General of India with the Viceroy of India.
The Viceroy was the representative of the British monarch (Crown) in India.
The 1858 Act was an act for the good government of India. The act also abolished the East India Company and transferred all the powers to the crown. It was seen as the beginning of Crown Rule. The Board of Control and Court of Directors was also abolished. A new office of secretary of State was created and 15 members council was made to assist the secretary. The 1861 Councils Act gave the Viceroy the power to issue ordinances
Here is a list of Important Viceroys and the changes they bought:
|Viceroy||Period||Important Events/ Reforms|
|Lord Canning||1856-1862||Withdrew Doctrine of lapse.
Indian Council Act, 1861
Introduction of Portfolio system
Indian Penal Code, 1860 was introduced
Archaeological Survey of India established by Alexander Cunningham.
|Lord Lawrence||1864-1869||Calcutta, Bombay, Madras in 1865 got high courts.
Indian Forest Department.
Opened telegraph line with Europe.
He was known as the Savior of Punjab.
|Lord Mayo||1869-1872||Financial decentralization.
Established Rajkot College (Kathiawar) and Mayo College (Ajmer).
The first census was conducted in 1871.
He organized the Statistical survey of India.
|Lord Lytton||1876-1880|| Famine commission under Richard Starchey was appointed.
Introduced uniform salt tax.
Supported free trade policy.
Second Afghan War (1878-80) and treaty of Gandamak.
Vernacular press Act, 1878.
|Lord Rippon||1880-1884||First Factory act was passed in 1881, it prohibited the child labour.
Illbert Bill in 1883.
Known as “Ripon the Good”.
1882- Hunter Commission (recommended the expansion of elementary education of the masses)
Passed Local Self Government act in 1882. Known as father of “local self government “
|Lord Dufferin||1884-1888||Indian National Congress was formed in 1885.|
|Lord Lansdowne||1888-1894||Indian Council Act was passed in 1892.
Second Factory Act in 1891
Durand Commission to define a line between British India and Afghanistan.
|Lord Curzon||1899-1905||Partition of Bengal in 1905
Instituted Police Commission under Andrew Frazer.
Universities Act, 1904- bought all universities under control of Government.
Victoria Memorial was built by him.
|Lord Minto||1905-1910||Morley-Minto reform- passed in 1909.
Known as “Father of Communal electorate”
|Lord Hardinge||1910-1916||The capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911
He was the target of the Delhi Conspiracy Case.
Annie Besant started the Home Rule moment
|Lord Chelmsford||1916-1921||August Declaration of 1917, after which the control over the Indian Government would be transferred to Indian people.
Rowlatt Act was passed
Montague-Chelmsford reform was passed in 1919.
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place on 13th April 1919.
Non- Cooperation and Khilafat movement were launched.
|Lord Reading||1921-1926||The horrific Chaura incident took place and Ganhiji stopped the non- cooperation movement.|
|Lord Irwin||1926-1931||Simon commission visited India in 1928 to review the working of Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms of 1919.
Dandi March- 1930
Civil Disobedience movement began
Gandhi- Irwin pact was signed
First Round Table Conference was held in 1931.
|Lord Willingdon||1931-1936||Poona Pact was signed.
Second and Third Round Table Conference were held in 1931ans 1932 respectively.
Communal Award started by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald.
Government of India Act (1935) was passed.
Cripps Mission visited India in 1942.
Quit India movement began
Second World war (1939- 45)
|Lord Wavell||1944-1947||Shimla Conference was held on June 25, 1945.
Cabinet Mission Plan was announced in 1946.
|Lord Mountbatten||March 1947- August 1947||He was the last Viceroy of India
He was the first Governor General of free India.
Partition of India took place under him on June 3, 1947.I
India Independent Act was passed on July 4, 1947 by British parliament.
India became independent on August 15, 1947.
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