Endocrine System Facts & Functions – Biology Notes
The Endocrine System is a biological system which functions with the help of glands and produce hormones. The hormones produced by the Endocrine system regulate metabolism, growth, reproduction, sleep, mood and tissue function. It is an important topic to cover in government exams like SSC CGL, Railways, UPSC and CPO.
What is Endocrine System?
It is a biological system which functions with the help of glands that produce hormones. It is important to understand the meaning of hormones too. If we talk in layman terms, they are a sophisticated set of communicators that send a signal to every part of the body. Usually, hormones travel from one part of the body to another via the circulatory system to arouse a particular activity. Notably, the major activities that are regulated by the release of these hormones are metabolism, growth, reproduction, sleep, and mood.
Knowing the components of the Endocrine System
The main components of the Endocrine System are:
- Pituitary Gland
- Thyroid Gland
- Adrenal Gland
- Parathyroid Gland
- Ovaries ( For Females)
- Testicles ( For Males)
Different Glands and Hormones released by them:
Pituitary Gland secretes Growth Hormone, Prolactin, Adrenocorticotrophic hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone. Oversecretion of GH leads to abnormal growth of body and causes gigantism and dwarfism
Pineal Gland secrets Melatonin. Oversecretion of the same can cause depression and insomnia. Deficiency of the same cause sleeps problems.
This Gland secretes Thyrocalcitonin, Tetraiodothyronine. Deficiency of iodine in a person’s diet can cause inflammation of the Thyroid and can result in a condition called hypothyroidism, commonly known as Goitre.
Pancreas gland secretes insulin and excessive secretion of insulin can lead to high blood sugar which can further result in Diabetes.
They secrete Testosterone. Excessive can result in advance puberty and infertility
Estrogen is secreted by the ovaries and its excessive dominance can cause fatigue, abnormal menstruation and breast cancer.