Important Institutions of the World and their headquarters and establishment year

Important Institutions of the World : Know their Objectives

Numerous organizations are working to make the world a better place to live in. Let us have a look at these organizations and their functioning which are essential for the world. 

  1. The United Nations (UN)

 It is a supranational, governmental organization which aims to oversee all countries of the world.

Founding Date: 24th October 1945                                    

Number of Members: 193 Countries              

 Headquarters: New York, United States

Secretary-General: Antonio Guterres

  1. UN Charter: 

  • Signing of the UN Charter: 26 June 1945 
  • Implementation of the Charter: 24 October 1945 

What are its Objectives?

The members meet to discuss critical issues concerning the globe such as peace and security, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament, terrorism, humanitarian and health emergencies, gender equality, governance, food production, and more.

It is responsible for the following tasks:

  1. Maintaining International Peace and Security
  2. Protecting Human Rights
  3. Delivering Humanitarian Aid
  4. Promoting Sustainable Development 
  5. Upholding International Law

Important Institutions of the World

The UN has main organs that are concerned with different responsibilities of the UN:

  1. The General Assembly:The General Assembly is the main organ of the UN where all 193 members meet in New York to take decisions on important matters of the world currently at hand.


  1. The Security Council:The United Nations Security comprises of 5 Permanent Members and 10 non-permanent memberswho make important decisions to maintain peace and security.


c.The Economic and Social Council: The ECOSOC aims to bring all countries together to take action and move towards a sustainable future.


  1. The Trusteeship Council: This council, which is now abandoned, ensured that trust territories are functioning in the best interests of the inhabitants of the area.
  1. The International Court of Justice: This court is responsible for managing legal issues pertaining to nations.
  1. The UN secretariat: This secretariat takes decisions regarding the executive role of the UN bodies.


3.South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)


Founding date: 8 December 1985

Members: 8 Nations

Headquarters: Kathmandu, Nepal

 Secretary- General:  Amjad Hussain B Sial

What are its objectives?


The south Asian association for regional cooperation (SAARC) comprises of south Asian countries namely India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives and Sri Lanka who collectively co-operate on: 


  1. Human Resource Development and Tourism
  2. Agriculture and Rural Development
  3. Environment, Natural Disasters, and Biotechnology
  4. Economic, Trade, and Finance
  5. Social Affairs
  6. Information and Poverty Alleviation
  7. Energy, Transport, Science and Technology
  8. Education, Security and Culture and Others


The decisions taken by these countries together on a global platform affect the entire world since these 8 countries make up 3% of the world’s area, 21% of the world’s population and 3.8% (US$2.9 trillionof the global economy.


 4.World Health Organization (WHO)


Founding Date: 7th April 1948 (Also celebrated as World Health Day)

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Members:  194 Member States, 150 country offices, six regional offices

Director General: Tedros Adhanom

What are its Objectives?

It is the supreme organization when it comes to the coordination of international health projects. This organization works directly with the UN and aims to strengthen health facilities across the globe by promoting co-operation amongst medical science organizations.

5.National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Founding date: 29th July 1958

Headquarters: Washington DC, USA

Administrator: Jim Berdenstine 

NASA is an independent agency run by the United States government which is a pioneer organization when it comes to Space research and aeronautics. NASA was the 1st organization to set foot on the moon with the infamous Apollo missions.

NASA aims to make humans more aware of Space and develop technology to allow better space exploration in the future.


6.World Trade Organization (WTO)


Founding Date: 1st January 1995

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Director-General:  Roberto Azevedo

Members: 164 Nation States and 23 observer nation

What is the Objective?

 The World Trade organization aims to promote Trade across countries and is the supreme organization to settle trade disputes

7.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Adopted on: 9th May 1992

Enactment date: 21st March 1994

Headquarters: Bonn, Germany 

Executive Secretary: Patricia Espinosa

Members: 165 signatories and 197 ratifiers

What was the main Objective?

 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international treaty that aims to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions and stop climate change. 

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8. European Union (EU)

Founding Date: 1st November 1993

Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium

Members: 28 Countries


The EU comprises of 28 nations in Europe which have a single integrated market and a standardized system of laws. Most Countries use a single currency and have a collective passport process which makes the European Union act like 1 single super nation in the global scenario.

9.World Bank Group

Founding date: July 1945

Headquarters: Washington DC, USA

President: David Malpass

Members:  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) – 189

          International Development Association (IDA) -173  

Objective of World Bank

The World Bank is an International Organization that provides loans to the governments of developing countries to pursue capital projects and take up poverty reduction projects. It has 5 subsidiary bodies under it:

         The International Bank for Reconstruction and Redevelopment (IBRD provides debt financing to the Private Sector.

         The International Finance Corporation (IFC)  provides various forms of financing to the private sector.

         The International Development Association (IDA) provides concessional financing and hence it is also known as the ‘Soft- Loan’ Window.

         The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) works with different governments to reduce investment risk;

         The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) provides insurance against a few special risks, primarily to the private sector

10.International Monetary Fund(IMF)

Founding Date: 27th December 1945

Headquarters: Washington DC, USA

Members – 189 Countries

Chief Economist: Gita Gopinath


 This organization was formed along the World Bank and it aims to promote monetary co-operation, facilitate international trade and help countries manage their balance of payments.

  1. International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

Founding Year: 1923

Headquarters: Lyon, France

President: Kim Jong Yang

Members: 194 Countries


To facilitate worldwide police co-operation and crime control on crimes that are transnational such as terrorism, cybercrime and organized crime.

12.United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Founding Date: 16th November 1945

Headquarters: Paris, France

Members: 193 States.

Director-General: Audrey Azoulay


UNESCO aims to promote international collaboration amongst countries on issues pertaining to science, education, social sciences, culture and communication.

13.Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Founding Date: 8th August 1967

Headquarters: Jakarta, Indonesia

Members: 10 Nations

Objective of ASEAN

This organization aims to promote economic, political, security, military, educational and socio-cultural integration amongst the 10 member nations of South East Asia.

 14.Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa Leaders Summit (BRICS)

Founding Date: September 2006

Headquarters: Shanghai, China

Members: 5 Nations


Aims to promote development and co-operation amongst the 5 most developing nations of the world that together constitute 40% of the population.

 15.International Criminal Court (ICC)

Founding Date: 1st July 2002

Headquarters: The Hague, Netherlands   

Members: 122 Nations

Objective: It prosecutes individuals for international crimes of genocide, war crimes, crimes of aggression and crimes against humanity.      

 16.International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Founding Date: 26th June 1945

Headquarters: The Hague, Netherlands

Number of personnel in the court: 15

Tenure of the Judges: 9 years


It is the main Judicial Organization of the United Nations and it works to settle international disputes and give advisory on legal issues to the United Nations.

17.Group of 20 (G20)

Founding Date: 26th September 1999

Chairman: Shinzo Abe

Members: 20 members along with a representative of IMF and World Bank


They meet to discuss policies that promote international financial stability. They represent 2/3rds of the world’s population and 85% of the world’s GDP.

18.Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Founding Date: 1st July 1975

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Members: 183 Nation-States


CITES aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants do not threaten their survival. It works actively in protecting the Flora and Fauna.

  19.Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

Founding Date: 25th December 2015

Headquarters:  Beijing, China

Members: 97 nations

Objective : It aims to support and improve infrastructure facilities in the Asia- Pacific region.

  1. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Founding Date: 14th July 1967

Headquarters: Geneva,Switzerland.

Members: 192 Nation states

Objective: It aims to encourage creative activity and also aims to promote and protect intellectual property

  1. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Founding Date: September 1960

Headquarters: Vienna, Austria

Members: 14 Members 

Secretary General: Mohammed Barkindo

Objective: It aims to facilitate co-operation amongst oil-exporting countries and ensure the stabilization of the oil market

  1. Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Founding Date: 30th September 1961

Headquarters: Paris, France

Members: 36

Objective: It aims to stimulate economic progress and world Trade

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