Things you always wanted to know about “The United Nations”

Introduction to the principal organs of The  United Nations. 


The United Nations rose from the ashes of destruction, and created a magnificent vision for all of humankind: to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, and protect universal human rights.




The United Nations is a diverse organisation of independent countries working for global peace and social progress. The United Nations. The organisation was officially founded with 51 countries as its founding members on 24 October 1945.  


The UN has the objective of maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, developing friendly relations between countries, providing humanitarian assistance, achieving international cooperation and promoting sustainable development.


United Nations is the world’s largest and most powerful organisation with 193 Member States and two observers. It was created after World War II to prevent wars in future and promote international peace. The first session of the United Nations as a fully-fledged organisation with its member countries was held in London, in 1946.


The Secretary-General of the United Nations is  António Guterres. The headquarters of The United Nations is situated in New York, United States. It was founded on 24 October 1945, San Francisco, California. Since 1948, 24 October has been celebrated as United Nations Day. The official languages of the United Nations are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish. 



Introduction to the principal organs of The  United Nations. 


● UN General Assembly

The UN General Assembly, which includes all member states, is the principal deliberative, policy-making, and representative organ in the UN. It consists of 193 nations. The headquarters of The General Assembly is in New York, United States. Its function is the supervision of the United Nations’ budgets, appointing non-permanent Security Council members, appointing the United Nations General Secretary, collecting UN reports and issuing recommendations in the form of resolutions of the General Assembly.


● UN Security Council

Under the United Nations Charter, the Security Council is primarily responsible for ensuring international peace and security. It consists of 15 members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members). China, France, Russia, the UK and the United States are permanent members. Its headquarters are in New York, United States. The powers of the United Nations Security Council include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions, as well as the authorization of military action using resolutions. It is the only UN entity with the authority to issue legal resolutions to its member states.


● United Nations Secretariat

The Secretariat is composed of the Secretary-General and tens of thousands of international local officials, who perform the UN daily activities on the orders of both the General Assembly and the other principal organs of the United Nations. The chief executive officer of the Security Council is appointed for a term of 5 years by the General Assembly on the request of the Security Council. Its headquarters are in New York, United States. UN staff members are recruited locally and globally and serve at duty stations and worldwide peacekeeping missions. 


● International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial body of the United Nations, it is also known as the “World Court”. The ICJ addresses conflicts between countries and advises the UN on international legal issues. Its headquarters are in The Hague Netherlands


● United Nations Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations acts as a central forum for discussion of international economic and social problems. It also formulates policies and recommendations that need to be addressed to its member states. Its headquarters are in New York, United States. The Economic and Social Council also manages the socioeconomic fields in the organisation. 


● United Nations Trusteeship Council

Trusteeship Council is authorised to review and analyse the administrative authority reports on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of its Trust Territories. Along with maintaining international peace and security. Its headquarters are in New York, United States.


Read more: World Day of Social Justice


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Important Agencies of The United Nations


International Monetary Fund (IMF)

It was set up in 1945. Its headquarters is in Washington DC. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organisation made up of 189 countries working for a world in terms of monetary cooperation, financial stability, international trade facilitation, promoting high employment and sustainable economic development, and poverty reduction around the world.


World Bank Group (WBG)

The World Bank is the biggest and most renowned world bank in the world. Its main objective is to end poverty and create mutual prosperity. It was founded in 1944. The Headquarters are based in Washington DC. It has five organisations, including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).


International Labour Organisation (ILO)

It was set up in 1919. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. The main aim of the ILO was to improve the working conditions and standards of living for the workers and labours. 


World Tourism Organisation (WTO)

The International Tourism Organization is the specialised organisation of the UN that promotes sustainable and widely available tourism. It was founded in 1974. Its headquarters are in Madrid, Spain. It is the leading global tourism organisation, promoting tourism as a catalyst for economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability.


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

It was founded in 1965. Its headquarters are in New York, United States. UNDP encourages developing countries to improve their natural and human resource capacity to generate capital.


United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

It was established in 1972. Its Headquarters are in Nairobi, Kenya.  The goal of UNEP is to foster international cooperation in environmental issues.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

It was established in 1946. Its headquarters is in Paris, France. UNESCO is a United Nations specialist agency whose principal purpose is to contribute in fostering international cooperation in education, science and culture to strengthen global respect for justice, the rule of law and civil rights along with fundamental freedoms as enshrined in the charter of the United Nations.


International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

It was established in 1957. Its headquarters are in Vienna, Austria. IAEA is an international organisation, aimed at encouraging the peaceful use of nuclear energy and avoiding the use of nuclear energy to military purposes, including nuclear weapons. 


International Maritime Organization (IMO)

It was established in 1948. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. The International Maritime Organization is the United Nations’ specialist shipping agency. A comprehensive regulatory structure for shipments is established and maintained by the IMO. Its main aim is to include protection, environmental concerns, legal issues, technical cooperation, maritime security, and maritime productivity.

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