Modern History : Important Topics and events
An insight into a few very important events and its provision, under Indian modern history chapter.
1. Rajagopalachari formula (1944)
Also known as c. R formula
- Aimed at resolving the deadlock b/w Indian
National Congress&Muslim League
Appointed of a commission whose function would be to demarcate the boundaries of the Muslim majority regions in the north west and eastern India.
Ø ML should support and endorse the congress’s demand for independence.
Ø League should cooperate with Congress in the formation of an interim govt. For the transitional period till independence.
Ø Transfer of the population on a voluntary basis which was to be done by holding a plebiscite in the concerned areas.
Ø In the event of separation of power mutual agreement to safeguard crucial services like commerce, communication & defense, etc.
- The Hindu Sabha under the leadership of V D
Savarkar condemned the C R formula for bringing cooperation between the league and the congress.
However, Mahatma Gandhi used this formula as the basis for talks with Jinnah in 1944 but the talks failed ultimately.
The ML rejected this as it was adamant on its demand for a separate nation which would not be a part of the Indian union.
2. Wavell plan 1945
Viceroy Lord Wavell was permitted by the British government to have negotiations with leaders of INC who got released from jail on 1st June 1945.
Wavell came with his breakdown plan to develop a constitutional framework for India.
He came up with certain proposals which aimed at bringing changes regarding the present constitutional scheme.
3. Desai – Liaqat proposal 1945
- Attempt to resolve political stalemate b/w INC&ML
- Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai & Liaqat Ali tried to reach an agreement in Jan 1945.
- Terms- nomination of an equal number of persons by the congress and the Muslim League in the central legislature.
- Representation of minorities including the SC & Sikhs through 20% of all the seats.
- Both ml &INC did not endorse the formalization of this pact hence it remained only on paper.
4. Shimla conference 1945
In order to discuss the Wavell plan, 21 Indians were called at Shimla by the viceroy.
ML claimed itself as the sole representative of the Muslims denying congress any right to propose its Muslim nominees.
ML also demanded the matters concerning the Muslims would require 2/3rd majority of the league to get passed.
Meanwhile the congress was apprehensive of the fact that it would give an impression of the congress as an organization of the caste Hindu
Therefore, Wavell suspended this plan over disagreement b/w ML &INC.
However, lord Wavell recognized the ML as a national party equal to that of congress, thus thereafter the position of ml got strengthened.
5. Indian independence act 1947
- On the basis of Mountbatten plan, the bill of Indian independence was presented in the British parliament and was passed on 18th July 1947.
- The act enabled the representatives of India and Pakistan to frame their own constitutions, giving legal effect to Mountbatten plan.
- The act provided for the partition of India and the establishment of two dominions from august 15th 1947
- Provisions of Indian independence act 1947
- Part I of the act provided for the creation of two independent dominions.
- It defined the territories of both the dominions after the recommendation of the boundary commission
- Provided for partition of Punjab & Bengal and succession of Sylhet from Assam
- The act provided for one common governor-general if both the dominions so agreed.
- But after the partition Jinnah became the governor-general of Pakistan and C Rajagopalachari was made of India.
- Till the new Constitution was drafted each of the dominions were to be governed in accordance with GOI act 1935
- The act terminated the suzerainty and the paramountcy of the British crown over the Indian states and all the treaties and agreements to lapse on August 15th.
- The British government would exercise no authority in future over the tribal areas.
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