Vang Bhang: The History of Partition of Bengal

History of Partition of Bengal: Important dates and events

Bengal has always been an important centre for British India. The-partition of Bengal took place in the year 1905. This event is a part of the modern history of India.  Bengal was also the capital for British India. This fact attracted the freedom fighters to Bengal in order to start activation. 
The Bengal before partition was 5 times bigger than the present-day Bengal. Bengal used to comprise Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Bangladesh and Odisha. The colloquial language was a mix of Bengali, Odiya, Hindi, Bangladeshi etc. 
Partition of Bengal

In January 1904, Lord Curzon introduced the partition of Bengal.

Who was Lord Curzon? 

Lord Curzon was the was the governor-general and the Viceroy of India from January 1899 to November 1905. Some major events under him were the formation of famine commission, irrigation commission, police commission, Punjab Land Alienation Act and the Partition of Bengal. For him, Bengal was the too large entity to be governed, hence Bengal was divided into Eastern Bengal, Assam and West Bengal. Curzon was never in favour of Indians and wanted to establish a British monopoly. 

The Partition: Important dates and events 

The main idea behind the partition was Bengal is not specifically to governance easy. The partition of Bengal was done so as to put the Bengalis in minority in Bengal by including Hindu and Odiya people and hence he formed the East Bengal. Like any other time, this event also reflected the divide and rule policy of British India. 

Ever before this event, there was no specific war on the basis of religion be it from the Muslim side of the Hindu side. The wars were in the hunger of power. This partition actually triggered the communalism in the Indian population. On 20th July 1905, Bengal was divided into three parts. 

Bengal a after partition with Hindu majority – West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha 

Bengal after partition with Muslim Majority – East Bengal and Assam

Key Reasons behind the Partition of Bengal

British gave two reasons for the partition of Bengal but none of them can be considered as a solid reason behind such a big revamp. But the actual reasons were quite different. 
Reasons that were given by the Britsih government 
1. It said that Bengal is a home area and governing such a huge land is difficult, hence it needs a partition.

2. In the name of good governance and to make the administration strong, it called for the partition of Bengal.

Partition of Bengal

Decoded Reasons

1. Bengalis formed the educated class of India. The great leaders and writers like Rabindra Nath Tagore, J. C. bose, Anrindra Nath Tagore, W.C. Banarjee etc. The British government had this realization that the wave of activation will start to form these educated Bengalis. Hence, they decided to weaken the power of the Bengali population by making them a minority in Bengal. 

2. The ultimate reason was to suppress the Indian National Movement 

The Chief Commissioner of Assam in 1896-1902, Henry John Stedman Cotton, opposed the partition move. Hence, J. B. Fuller became the L.G. of this large province. But, Curzon thought as if he was dividing an American county for better administration.

 This event is a remarkable manifestation of the political activity in India called Vang Bhang (Partition of Bengal)


This event had separated Bengals from Bengalis and hence, this was not accepted. The aftermath of partition of Bengal is the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement. 

The flags of “United Bengal” and slogans of “Unity is a strength” were taken by Bengali Patriots who marched through the streets of Calcutta and they reached the Town Hall. A huge meeting was organised on 7th August 1905 in the town hall which further denounced partition as arbitrary. Further, the Boycott of British goods and the Swadeshi movement started. The national song, Vande Mataram was the song sung as a symbol of agitation. 

It was impressive to see the unity of the community and hence Gurudev Rabindranath declared this day to be the day of Unity. People tired threads

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