What are the roles of Governor in India? Appointment, Role, Powers

The roles of Governor in India –

The State Executive consists of-

  • Governor
  • Chief Minister
  • Council of Ministers
  • Advocate General of the State

Appointment of the Governor

Article 157 of the Indian Constitution lists the eligibility criteria for the Governor. A Governor must-

  • Be a citizen of India
  • Be at least 35 years of age.
  • is nota member of either house of the parliament or house of the state legislature.
  • Not hold any office of profit.

A Governor is appointed by the President of the Country.

However, the office of the Governor is an independent constitutional office and is not in control or subordinate to the Central government.

Tenure- 5 years.  He holds office at the pleasure of the President.

Read more: Schedules of the Indian Constitution: How do they work?

What is the role of the Governor?

The Governor has a dual role- as the nominal executive head and as an agent of the Central government.

Powers and Functions of the Governor

This can be divided into four heads-

  1. Executive powers
  2. Legislative powers
  3. Financial powers
  4. Judicial powers

Executive Powers

  • Chief Minister of the state, other ministers of the state on the advice of Chief Minister, Advocate General are appointed by him and hold office during his pleasure.
  • He can recommend the imposition of constitutional emergency in a state to the President.
  • He is also the Chancellor of most of the Universities in the State and appoints the vice-chancellor.
  • He also appoints the chairman and members of the State Public Service Commission (SPSC)
  • He also appoints the state election commissioner and decides his tenure of office.

Legislative Powers

  • Summons the sessions of both houses of the state legislature and prorogues them.
  • Has the power to dissolve the State Legislative Assembly.
  • He can address the state legislature by addressing it after the assembly elections at the beginning of the first session every year. The governor’s address on these occasions generally outlines new policies of the state government.
  • His assent is needed to make a bill (passed by the State Legislature) a law.
  • The governor has the power to reserve certain bills for the president.
  • The governor can promulgate ordinances when the state legislature is not in session. The ordinance must be approved within 6 weeks by the state legislature from its date of reassembly.

Read more: How many Parliamentary Committees are there in India?

Financial Powers

  • He sees that the State Budget (annual financial statement) is laid before the State Legislature.
  • He also has the power to make advances to meet any unforeseen expenditure out of the Contingency Fund of the State.
  • He constitutes the Finance Commission of state.

Judicial Powers

  • The judges of State High Court are appointed by the President with the consultation of the Governor.
  • He has the power to pardon, Reprieve, Respite, Remit and Commute punishments.

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